# Verified computations

## Overview

When used inside Sage, SnapPy can verify the following computations:

• Complex intervals for the shapes that are guaranteed to contain a true but not necessarily geometric solution to the rectangular gluing equations:

```sage: M = Manifold("m015(3,1)")
sage: M.tetrahedra_shapes('rect', intervals=True)
[0.625222762246? + 3.177940133813?*I,
-0.0075523593782? + 0.5131157955971?*I,
0.6515818912107? - 0.1955023488930?*I]
```

(Specify `bits_prec` or `dec_prec` for higher precision intervals.)

• Verify the hyperbolicity of an orientable 3-manifold giving complex intervals for the shapes corresponding to a hyperbolic structure or holonomy representation with `verify_hyperbolicity()`:

```sage: M = Manifold("m015")
sage: M.verify_hyperbolicity()
(True,
[0.6623589786224? + 0.5622795120623?*I,
0.6623589786224? + 0.5622795120623?*I,
0.6623589786224? + 0.5622795120623?*I])
sage: M.verify_hyperbolicity(holonomy=True).SL2C('a')
[-0.324717957? - 1.124559024?*I -0.704807293? + 0.398888830?*I]
[ 1.409614585? - 0.797777659?*I       -1.000000000? + 0.?e-9*I]
```
• Intervals for the volume and complex volume of a hyperbolic orientable 3-manifold:

```sage: M = Manifold("m003(-3,1)")
sage: M.volume(verified=True, bits_prec = 100)
0.942707362776927720921299603?
sage: M = Manifold("m015")
sage: M.complex_volume(verified_modulo_2_torsion=True)
2.8281220883? + 1.9106738240?*I
```

(Note that when using verified computation, the Chern-Simons invariant is only computed modulo pi^2/2 even though it is defined modulo pi^2.)

• Give the canonical retriangulation (a close relative to the canonical cell decomposition) of a cusped hyperbolic manifold using intervals or exact arithmetic if necessary with `canonical_retriangulation()`:

```sage: M = Manifold("m412")
sage: K = M.canonical_retriangulation(verified = True)
sage: len(K.isomorphisms_to(K)) # Certified size of isometry group
8
```

Remark: For the case of non-tetrahedral canonical cell, exact values are used which are found using the LLL-algorithm and then verified using exact computations. These computations can be slow. A massive speed-up was achieved by recent improvements so that the computation of the isometry signature of any manifold in `OrientableCuspedCensus` takes at most a couple of seconds, typically, far less. Manifolds with more simplices might require setting a higher value for `exact_bits_prec_and_degrees`.

• The isometry signature which is a complete invariant of the isometry type of a cusped hyperbolic manifold (i.e., two manifolds are isometric if and only if they have the same isometry signature):

```sage: M = Manifold("m412")
sage: M.isometry_signature(verified = True)
'mvvLALQQQhfghjjlilkjklaaaaaffffffff'
```

The isometry signature can be strengthened to include the peripheral curves such that it is a complete invariant of a hyperbolic link:

```sage: M = Manifold("L5a1")
sage: M.isometry_signature(of_link = True, verified = True)
'eLPkbdcddhgggb_baCbbaCb'
```

See `isometry_signature()` for details.

Remark: The isometry signature is based on the canonical retriangulation so the same warning applies.

• The maximal cusp area matrix which characterizes the configuration space of disjoint cusp neighborhoods with `cusp_area_matrix()`:

```sage: M=Manifold("m203")
sage: M.cusp_area_matrix(method='maximal', verified=True)
[   27.000000? 9.0000000000?]
[9.0000000000?   27.0000000?]
```

In this example, the cusp neighborhood about cusp 0 or 1 is only embedded if and only if its area is less than sqrt(27). The cusp neighborhood about cusp 0 is only disjoint from the one about cusp 1 if and only if the product of their areas is less than 9.

• Compute areas for disjoint cusp neighborhoods with `cusp_areas()`:

```sage: M=Manifold("m203")
sage: M.cusp_areas(policy = 'unbiased', method='maximal', verified = True)
[3.00000000000?, 3.00000000000?]
```

With the above parameters, the result is intrinsic to the hyperbolic manifold with labeled cusped.

• Find all slopes of length less or equal to 6 when measured on the boundary of disjoint cusp neighborhoods:

```sage: M=Manifold("m203")
sage: M.short_slopes(policy = 'unbiased', method='maximal', verified = True)
[[(1, 0), ...,  (1, 2)], [(1, 0), ...,  (1, 2)]]
```

First block has all short slopes for first cusp, …, see `short_slopes()` for details.

By Agol’s and Lackenby’s 6-Theorem any Dehn-filling resulting in a non-hyperbolic manifold must contain one of the above slopes. Thus, `short_slopes()` can be used to implement the techniques to find exceptional Dehn surgeries (arXiv:1109.0903 and arXiv:1310.3472).

This is all based on a reimplementation of HIKMOT which pioneered the use of interval methods for hyperbolic manifolds (also see Zgliczynski’s notes). It can be used in a way very similar to HIKMOT, but uses Sage’s complex interval types for certification. It furthermore makes use of code by Dunfield, Hoffman, Licata. The code to compute the isomorphism signature was ported over from Regina.

This verification code was contributed by Matthias Goerner.